Source code for pybedtools.bedtool

import tempfile
from textwrap import dedent
import shutil
import subprocess
import operator
import os
import sys
import random
import string
import pprint
from itertools import islice
import multiprocessing
import six
import gzip
import pysam
from warnings import warn

from .helpers import (
from . import helpers
from .cbedtools import (
from . import filenames
import pybedtools
from . import settings
from . import filenames

_implicit_registry = {}
_other_registry = {}
_bam_registry = {}

def _jaccard_output_to_dict(s, **kwargs):
    jaccard method doesn't return an interval file, rather, it returns a short
    summary of results.  Here, we simply parse it into a dict for convenience.
    if isinstance(s, six.string_types):
        _s = open(s).read()
    elif hasattr(s, "next") or hasattr(s, "__next__"):
        _s = "".join([i for i in s])
        raise ValueError("Unexpected object %r" % s)
    header, data = _s.splitlines()
    header = header.split()
    data = data.split()
    data[0] = int(data[0])
    data[1] = int(data[1])
    data[2] = float(data[2])
    data[3] = int(data[3])
    return dict(list(zip(header, data)))

def _reldist_output_handler(s, **kwargs):
    reldist, if called with -detail, returns a valid BED file with the relative
    distance as the last field.  In that case, return the BedTool immediately.
    If not -detail, then the results are a table, in which case here we parse
    into a dict for convenience.
    if "detail" in kwargs:
        return BedTool(s)
    if isinstance(s, six.string_types):
        iterable = open(s)
    if hasattr(s, "next"):
        iterable = s
    header = six.advance_iterator(iterable).split()
    results = {}
    for h in header:
        results[h] = []
    for i in iterable:
        reldist, count, total, fraction = i.split()
        data = [float(reldist), int(count), int(total), float(fraction)]
        for h, d in zip(header, data):
    return results

def _wraps(
    Do-it-all wrapper, to be used as a decorator.

    *prog* is the name of the BEDTools program that will be called.  The help
    for this program will also be added to the decorated method's docstring.

    *implicit* is the BEDTools program arg that should be filled in

    *bam* will disable the implicit substitution if *bam* is in the kwargs.
    This is typically 'abam' or 'ibam' if the program accepts BAM input.

    *other* is the BEDTools program arg that is passed in as the second input,
    if supported.  Within the semantics of BEDTools, the typical case will be
    that if implicit='a' then other='b'; if implicit='i' then other=None.

    *uses_genome*, if True, will check for 'g' and/or 'genome' args and
    retrieve the corresponding genome files as needed.

    *make_tempfile_for* is used for the sequence methods and indicates which
    kwarg should have a tempfile made for it if it's not provided ('fo' for the
    sequence methods)

    *check_stderr*, if not None, is a function that accepts a string (which
    will be anything written to stdout when calling the wrapped program).  This
    function should return True if the string is OK, and False if it should
    truly be considered an error.  This is needed for wrapping fastaFromBed,
    which will report to stderr that it's creating an index file.

    *add_to_bedtool* is used for sequence methods.  It is a dictionary mapping
    kwargs to attributes to be created in the resulting BedTool.  Typically it
    is {'fo':'seqfn'} which will add the resulting sequence name to the
    BedTool's .seqfn attribute. If *add_to_bedtool* is not None, then the
    returned BedTool will be *self* with the added attribute.  If a key is
    "stdout" (e.g., {"stdout": attr_name}), then save the stdout of the command
    as a tempfile and store the tempfile's name in the attribute.  This is
    required for linksBed and bedToIgv.

    *nonbam* is a kwarg that even if the input file was a BAM, the output will
    *not* be BAM format.  For example, the `-bed` arg for intersectBed will
    cause the output to be in BED format, not BAM.  If not None, this can be a
    string, a list of strings, or the special string "ALL", which means that
    the wrapped program will never return BAM output.

    *force_bam*, if True, will force the output to be BAM.  This is used for

    *genome_none_if* is a list of arguments that will ignore the requirement
    for a genome.  This is needed for window_maker, where -b and -g are
    mutually exclusive.

    *genome_ok_if* is a list of arguments that, if they are in
    *genome_none_if*, are still OK to pass in.  This is needed for bedtool
    genomecov, where -g is not needed if -ibam is specified...but it's still OK
    if the user passes a genome arg.

    *genome_if* is a list of arguments that will trigger the requirement for
    a genome; otherwise no genome needs to be specified.

    *does_not_return_bedtool*, if not None, should be a function that handles
    the returned output.  Its signature should be ``func(output, kwargs)``,
    where `output` is the output from the [possibly streaming] call to BEDTools
    and `kwargs` are passed verbatim from the wrapped method call. Some
    examples of methods that use this are jaccard, reldist, fisher, and split

    *arg_order*, if not None, is a sorted list of arguments. This is used by
    handle_kwargs() to deal with things like issues 81 and 345, where some
    BEDTools programs are sensitive to argument order.

    # NOTE: We are calling each BEDTools program to get its help and adding
    # that to the docstring of each method. This is run at import time. However
    # if BEDTools is not on the path at import time, `not_implemented` is set
    # to True and isn't reset later until the module is reloaded.
    # helpers.set_bedtools_path therefore will trigger a module reload.
    not_implemented = False

    # Call the program with -h to get help, which prints to stderr.
        p = subprocess.Popen(
            helpers._version_2_15_plus_names(prog) + ["-h"],
        help_str = p.communicate()[1].decode()

        # underscores throw off ReStructuredText syntax of docstrings, so
        # replace 'em
        help_str = help_str.replace("_", "**")

        # indent
        help_str = help_str.split("\n")
        help_str = ["\n\n**Original BEDTools help:**::"] + ["\t" + i for i in help_str]
        help_str = "\n".join(help_str) + "\n"

    # If the program can't be found, then we'll eventually replace the method
    # with a version that does nothing but raise a NotImplementedError (plus
    # a helpful message).
    except OSError:
        help_str = (
            '"%s" does not appear to be installed '
            "or on the path, so this method is "
            "disabled.  Please install a more recent "
            "version of BEDTools and re-import to "
            "use this method." % prog
        not_implemented = True

    def decorator(func):
        Accepts a function to be wrapped; discards the original and returns a
        new, rebuilt-from-scratch function based on the kwargs passed to
        # Register the implicit (as well as bam and other) args in the global
        # registry.  BedTool.handle_kwargs() will access these at runtime.  The
        # registry is keyed by program name (like intersectBed).
        _implicit_registry[prog] = implicit
        if other is not None:
            _other_registry[prog] = other
        if bam is not None:
            _bam_registry[prog] = bam

        # Here's where we replace an unable-to-be-found program's method with
        # one that only returns a NotImplementedError
        if not_implemented:

            def not_implemented_func(*args, **kwargs):
                raise NotImplementedError(help_str)

            return not_implemented_func

        _add_doc = []
        if implicit:
                    For convenience, the file or stream this BedTool points to
                    is implicitly passed as the `-%s` argument to `%s`
                    % (implicit, prog)

        if uses_genome:
                    There are two alternatives for supplying a genome.  Use
                    `g="genome.filename"` if you have a genome's chrom sizes
                    saved as a file. This is the what BEDTools expects when
                    using it from the command line. Alternatively, use the
                    `genome=""` (for example, `genome="hg19"`) to
                    use chrom sizes for that assembly without having to manage
                    a separate file.  The `genome` argument triggers a call
                    `pybedtools.chromsizes`, so see that method for more

        def wrapped(self, *args, **kwargs):
            A newly created function that will be returned by the _wraps()

            # Only one non-keyword argument is supported; this is then assumed
            # to be "other" (e.g., `-b` for intersectBed)
            if len(args) > 0:
                assert len(args) == 1
                kwargs[other] = args[0]

            # Add the implicit values to kwargs.  If the current BedTool is
            # BAM, it will automatically be passed to the appropriate
            # BAM-support arg (like `-abam`).  But this also allows the user to
            # explicitly specify the abam kwarg, which will override the
            # auto-substitution.
            # Note: here, `implicit` is something like "a"; `bam` is something
            # like "abam"
            if (
                (implicit not in kwargs)
                and (bam not in kwargs)
                and (implicit is not None)
                if not self._isbam:
                    kwargs[implicit] = self.fn
                    # It is a bam file.  If this program supports BAM as the
                    # first input, then we set it here
                    if bam is not None:
                        kwargs[bam] = self.fn

                    # Otherwise, BEDTools can't currently handle it, so raise
                    # an exception.
                        raise pybedtoolsError(
                            '"%s" currently can\'t handle BAM '
                            "input, please use bam_to_bed() first." % prog

            # Should this function handle genome files?
            check_for_genome = uses_genome
            if uses_genome:
                if genome_none_if:
                    for i in genome_none_if:
                        if i in kwargs or i == implicit:
                            check_for_genome = False

                    # for genomecov, if -ibam then -g is optional.  So it's OK
                    # for the user to provide genome or g kwargs, even if
                    # -ibam.
                    if genome_ok_if:
                        for i in genome_ok_if:
                            if i in kwargs or i == implicit:
                                if ("g" in kwargs) or ("genome" in kwargs):
                                    check_for_genome = True
                if genome_if:
                    check_for_genome = False
                    for i in genome_if:
                        if (i in kwargs) or (i == implicit):
                            check_for_genome = True
            if check_for_genome:
                kwargs = self.check_genome(**kwargs)

            # TODO: should this be implemented as a generic function that can
            # be passed in for a each tool to check kwargs? Currently this is
            # the only check I can think of.
            if prog in ("intersect", "intersectBed"):
                if (
                    isinstance(kwargs["b"], list)
                    and len(kwargs["b"]) > 510
                    and all([isinstance(i, str) for i in kwargs["b"]])
                    raise pybedtoolsError(
                        "BEDTools intersect does not support > 510 filenames for -b "
                        "argument. Consider passing these as BedTool objects instead"

            # For sequence methods, we may need to make a tempfile that will
            # hold the resulting sequence.  For example, fastaFromBed needs to
            # make a tempfile for 'fo' if no 'fo' was explicitly specified by
            # the user.
            if make_tempfile_for is not None:
                if make_tempfile_for not in kwargs:
                    kwargs[make_tempfile_for] = self._tmp()

            # At runtime, this will parse the kwargs, convert streams to
            # tempfiles if needed, and return all the goodies
            cmds, tmp, stdin = self.handle_kwargs(prog=prog,

            # Decide whether the output is BAM format or not.
            result_is_bam = False

            # By default, if the current BedTool is BAM, then the result should
            # be, too.
            if self._isbam:
                result_is_bam = True

            # If nonbam is "ALL", then this method will never return BAM
            # output.
            if nonbam == "ALL":
                result_is_bam = False

            # If any of the `nonbam` args are found in kwargs, then result is
            # not a BAM.  Side note: the _nonbam name mangling is necessary to
            # keep the nonbam arg passed into the original _wraps() decorator
            # in scope.
            if nonbam is not None and nonbam != "ALL":
                if isinstance(nonbam, six.string_types):
                    _nonbam = [nonbam]
                    _nonbam = nonbam
                for i in _nonbam:
                    if i in kwargs:
                        result_is_bam = False

            if force_bam:
                result_is_bam = True

            decode_output = not result_is_bam

            # Do the actual call
            stream = call_bedtools(

            if does_not_return_bedtool:
                return does_not_return_bedtool(stream, **kwargs)

            # Post-hoc editing of the BedTool -- for example, this is used for
            # the sequence methods to add a `seqfn` attribute to the resulting
            # BedTool.
            if add_to_bedtool is not None:
                for kw, attr in list(add_to_bedtool.items()):
                    if kw == "stdout":
                        value = stream
                        value = kwargs[kw]
                    setattr(self, attr, value)
                    result = self
                result = BedTool(stream)

            result._isbam = result_is_bam
            result._cmds = cmds
            del kwargs
            return result

        # Now add the edited docstring (original Python doctring plus BEDTools
        # help) to the newly created method above
        if func.__doc__ is None:
            orig = ""
            orig = func.__doc__

        wrapped.__doc__ = orig + "\n".join(_add_doc) + help_str

        # Add the original method's name to a new attribute so we can access it
        # when logging history
        wrapped._name = func.__name__

        return wrapped

    return decorator

[docs]class BedTool(object): TEMPFILES = filenames.TEMPFILES
[docs] def __init__(self, fn=None, from_string=False, remote=False): """ Wrapper around Aaron Quinlan's ``BEDtools`` suite of programs (; also contains many useful methods for more detailed work with BED files. *fn* is typically the name of a BED-like file, but can also be one of the following: * a string filename * another BedTool object * an iterable of Interval objects * an open file object * a "file contents" string (see below) If *from_string* is True, then you can pass a string that contains the contents of the BedTool you want to create. This will treat all spaces as TABs and write to tempfile, treating whatever you pass as *fn* as the contents of the bed file. This also strips empty lines. Typical usage is to point to an existing file:: a = BedTool('a.bed') But you can also create one from scratch from a string:: >>> s = ''' ... chrX 1 100 ... chrX 25 800 ... ''' >>> a = BedTool(s, from_string=True) Or use examples that come with pybedtools:: >>> example_files = pybedtools.list_example_files() >>> assert 'a.bed' in example_files >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') """ if remote: raise ValueError( "Remote BAM no longer supported (since BEDTools does not " "support it)" ) self.remote = remote self._isbam = False self._bam_header = "" if from_string: bed_contents = fn fn = self._tmp() fout = open(fn, "w") for line in bed_contents.splitlines(): if len(line.strip()) == 0: continue line = "\t".join(line.split()) + "\n" fout.write(line) fout.close() else: # if fn is a Path object, we have to use its string representation if "pathlib.PurePath" in str(type(fn).__mro__): fn = str(fn) # our work is already done if isinstance(fn, BedTool): fn = fn.fn # from_string=False, so assume it's a filename elif isinstance(fn, six.string_types): if remote: self._isbam = True else: if not os.path.exists(fn): msg = 'File "%s" does not exist' % fn if six.PY2: raise ValueError(msg) raise FileNotFoundError(msg) self._isbam = isBAM(fn) # TODO: we dont' really need this, but it's added here for # compatibility with existing tests if self._isbam: header = pysam.Samfile(fn).header # For example: # { # 'HD': {'VN': '1.0', 'SO': 'coordinate'}, # 'SQ': [ # {'LN': 23011544, # 'SN': 'chr2L'}, # {'LN': 21146708, # 'SN': 'chr2R'}, # {'LN': 24543557, # 'SN': 'chr3L'}, # {'LN': 27905053, # 'SN': 'chr3R'}, # {'LN': 1351857, # 'SN': 'chr4'}, # {'LN': 22422827, # 'SN': 'chrX'} # ] # } txt_header = [] for k, v in header.items(): if isinstance(v, list): for i in v: if isinstance(i, dict): txt_header.append( "\t".join( ["@" + k] + [ ":".join(map(str, j)) for j in sorted(i.items(), reverse=True) ] ) ) elif isinstance(i, str): txt_header.append(i) elif isinstance(v, dict): txt_header.append( "\t".join( ["@" + k] + [ ":".join(map(str, j)) for j in sorted(v.items(), reverse=True) ] ) ) else: raise ValueError("unhandled type in BAM header") self._bam_header = "\n".join(txt_header) + "\n" # If tuple or list, then save as file first # (fixes #73) elif isinstance(fn, (list, tuple)): fn = BedTool(iter(fn)).saveas().fn # Otherwise assume iterator, say an open file as from # subprocess.PIPE else: fn = fn self.fn = fn tag = "".join([random.choice(string.ascii_lowercase) for _ in range(8)]) self._tag = tag _tags[tag] = self self._hascounts = False self._file_type = None self.history = History()
@classmethod def from_dataframe( self, df, outfile=None, sep="\t", header=False, na_rep=".", index=False, **kwargs ): """ Creates a BedTool from a pandas.DataFrame. If `outfile` is None, a temporary file will be used. Otherwise it can be a specific filename or an open file handle. Additional kwargs will be passed to `pandas.DataFrame.to_csv`. The fields of the resulting BedTool will match the order of columns in the dataframe. """ try: import pandas except ImportError: raise ImportError("pandas must be installed to use dataframes") if outfile is None: outfile = self._tmp() default_kwargs = dict(sep=sep, header=header, na_rep=na_rep, index=index) default_kwargs.update(kwargs) df.to_csv(outfile, **default_kwargs) if isinstance(outfile, six.string_types): fn = outfile else: try: fn = except AttributeError: raise ValueError( "`outfile` is not a string and doesn't have a `name` attribute. " "Unable to determine filename." ) return BedTool(fn)
[docs] def split(self, func, *args, **kwargs): """ Split each feature using a user-defined function. Calls the provided function `func` with each interval. In contrast to `each` (which does something similar), this method expects `func` to return an *iterable* of Interval objects. args and kwargs are passed directly to `func`. Returns a new BedTool. """ def generator(): for orig_interval in self: for interval in func(orig_interval, *args, **kwargs): yield interval return BedTool(generator())
[docs] def truncate_to_chrom(self, genome): """ Ensure all features fall within chromosome limits. Some peak-callers extend peaks such that the boundaries overstep chromosome coordinates. Upon uploading such a file to a genome browser like UCSC, this results in an error like:: Error line 101 of custom track: chromEnd larger than chrom chr2 size Use this method to clean your file, truncating any out-of-bounds features to fit within the chromosome coordinates of `genome`. `genome` can be either an assembly name ('dm3') or a dictionary where keys are chrom and values are (start, stop) tuples. """ if isinstance(genome, dict): chromdict = genome else: assert isinstance(genome, six.string_types) chromdict = helpers.chromsizes(genome) tmp = self._tmp() with open(tmp, "w") as fout: for chrom, coords in list(chromdict.items()): start, stop = coords start = str(start) stop = str(stop) fout.write("\t".join([chrom, start, stop]) + "\n") return self.intersect(tmp)
[docs] def tabix_intervals(self, interval_or_string, check_coordinates=False): """ Retrieve all intervals within coordinates from a "tabixed" BedTool. Given either a string in "chrom:start-stop" format, or an interval-like object with chrom, start, stop attributes, return a *streaming* BedTool of the features in this BedTool that overlap the provided interval. If the coordinates are invalid, an empty generator is returned unless `check_coordinates=True` in which case a ValueError will be raised. """ if not self._tabixed(): raise ValueError( "This BedTool has not been indexed for tabix " "-- please use the .tabix() method" ) # tabix expects 1-based coords, but BEDTools works with # zero-based. pybedtools and pysam also work with zero-based. So we can # pass zero-based directly to the pysam tabix interface. tbx = pysam.TabixFile(self.fn) # If an interval is passed, use its coordinates directly if isinstance(interval_or_string, Interval): interval = interval_or_string chrom, start, end = interval.chrom, interval.start, interval.stop # Parse string directly instead of relying on Interval, in order to # permit full chromosome fetching else: match = # Assume string is contig if it doesn't fit chrom:start-end format if match is None: chrom = interval_or_string start, end = None, None # Otherwise parse the coordinates else: chrom, start, end =, 2, 3) start, end = int(start), int(end) # Fetch results. try: results = tbx.fetch(str(chrom), start, end) except ValueError: if check_coordinates: raise else: results = [] # pysam.ctabix.TabixIterator does not include newlines when yielding so # we need to add them. def gen(): for i in results: yield i + "\n" # xref #190 x = BedTool(gen()).saveas() tbx.close() return x
def tabix_contigs(self): """ Returns a list of contigs from the tabix index. """ if not self._tabixed(): raise ValueError( "This BedTool has not been indexed for tabix " "-- please use the .tabix() method" ) tbx = pysam.TabixFile(self.fn) return tbx.contigs
[docs] def tabix(self, in_place=True, force=False, is_sorted=False): """ Prepare a BedTool for use with Tabix. Returns a new BedTool that has been BGZIP compressed and indexed by tabix. Parameters ---------- in_place : bool If True (default), then assume the file is already sorted and replace the existing file with the BGZIPed version. force : bool If True (default is False), then overwrite both the index and the BGZIP file. is_sorted : bool If True (default is False), then assume the file is already sorted so that BedTool.bgzip() doesn't have to do that work. """ # Return quickly if nothing to do if self._tabixed() and not force: return self # Make sure it's BGZIPed fn = self.bgzip(in_place=in_place, force=force) pysam.tabix_index(fn, force=force, preset=self.file_type) return BedTool(fn)
def _tabixed(self): """ Verifies that we're working with a tabixed file: a string filename pointing to a BGZIPed file with a .tbi file in the same dir. """ if ( isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types) and isBGZIP(self.fn) and os.path.exists(self.fn + ".tbi") ): return True
[docs] def bgzip(self, in_place=True, force=False, is_sorted=False): """ Helper function for more control over "tabixed" BedTools. Checks to see if we already have a BGZIP file; if not then prepare one. Always leaves the original file alone. You can always just make a BedTool out of an already sorted and BGZIPed file to avoid this step. `in_place` will put the BGZIPed file in the same dir (possibly after sorting to tempfile). If `is_sorted`, then assume the file is already sorted. Otherwise call bedtools sort with the `-header` option. `force` will overwrite without asking. """ if force: force_arg = "-f" else: force_arg = "" # It may already be BGZIPed... if isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types) and not force: if isBGZIP(self.fn): return self.fn # If not in_place, then make a tempfile for the BGZIPed version if not in_place: # Get tempfile name, sorted or not if not is_sorted: fn = self.sort(header=True).fn else: fn = self._tmp() # Register for later deletion outfn = fn + ".gz" BedTool.TEMPFILES.append(outfn) # Creates tempfile.gz pysam.tabix_compress(fn, outfn, force=force) return outfn # Otherwise, make sure the BGZIPed version has a similar name to the # current BedTool's file if in_place: if not is_sorted: fn = self.sort(header=True).saveas().fn else: fn = self.fn outfn = self.fn + ".gz" pysam.tabix_compress(fn, outfn, force=force) return outfn
def delete_temporary_history(self, ask=True, raw_input_func=None): """ Use at your own risk! This method will delete temp files. You will be prompted for deletion of files unless you specify *ask=False*. Deletes all temporary files created during the history of this BedTool up to but not including the file this current BedTool points to. Any filenames that are in the history and have the following pattern will be deleted:: <TEMP_DIR>/pybedtools.*.tmp (where <TEMP_DIR> is the result from get_tempdir() and is by default "/tmp") Any files that don't have this format will be left alone. (*raw_input_func* is used for testing) """ flattened_history = _flatten_list(self.history) to_delete = [] tempdir = get_tempdir() for i in flattened_history: fn = i.fn if fn.startswith(os.path.join(os.path.abspath(tempdir), "pybedtools")): if fn.endswith(".tmp"): to_delete.append(fn) if raw_input_func is None: raw_input_func = input str_fns = "\n\t".join(to_delete) if ask: answer = raw_input_func("Delete these files?\n\t%s\n(y/N) " % str_fns) if not answer.lower()[0] == "y": print("OK, not deleting.") return for fn in to_delete: os.unlink(fn) return def _log_to_history(method): """ Decorator to add a method and its kwargs to the history. Assumes that you only add this decorator to bedtool instances that return other bedtool instances """ def decorated(self, *args, **kwargs): # this calls the actual method in the first place; *result* is # whatever you get back result = method(self, *args, **kwargs) # add appropriate tags parent_tag = self._tag result_tag = result._tag # log the sucka history_step = HistoryStep( method, args, kwargs, self, parent_tag, result_tag ) # only add the current history to the new bedtool if there's # something to add if len(self.history) > 0: result.history.append(self.history) # but either way, add this history step to the result. result.history.append(history_step) return result decorated.__doc__ = method.__doc__ return decorated
[docs] def filter(self, func, *args, **kwargs): """ Filter features by user-defined function. Takes a function *func* that is called for each feature in the `BedTool` object and returns only those for which the function returns True. *args and **kwargs are passed directly to *func*. Returns a streaming BedTool; if you want the filename then use the .saveas() method. >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> subset = a.filter(lambda b: b.chrom == 'chr1' and b.start < 150) >>> len(a), len(subset) (4, 2) so it has extracted 2 records from the original 4. """ return BedTool((f for f in self if func(f, *args, **kwargs)))
[docs] def field_count(self, n=10): """ Number of fields in each line of this BedTool (checks `n` lines) Return the number of fields in the features this file contains. Checks the first *n* features. >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> a.field_count() 6 """ if self.file_type == "empty": return 0 i = 0 fields = set([]) for feat in self: if i > n: break i += 1 # TODO: make this more efficient. fields.update([len(feat.fields)]) assert len(fields) == 1, fields return list(fields)[0]
[docs] def each(self, func, *args, **kwargs): """ Modify each feature with a user-defined function. Applies user-defined function *func* to each feature. *func* must accept an Interval as its first argument; *args and **kwargs will be passed to *func*. *func* must return an Interval object OR a value that evaluates to False, in which case the original feature will be removed from the output. This way, an additional "filter" call is not necessary. >>> def truncate_feature(feature, limit=0): ... feature.score = str(len(feature)) ... if len(feature) > limit: ... feature.stop = feature.start + limit ... = + '.short' ... return feature >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> b = a.each(truncate_feature, limit=100) >>> print(b) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 1 100 feature1 99 + chr1 100 200 feature2 100 + chr1 150 250 feature3.short 350 - chr1 900 950 feature4 50 + <BLANKLINE> """ def _generator(): for f in self: result = func(f, *args, **kwargs) if result: yield result return BedTool(_generator())
[docs] def introns(self, gene="gene", exon="exon"): """ Create intron features (requires specific input format). NOTE: this method assumes a simple file with non-overlapping exons. For more sophisticated features, consider the gffutils package instead. Given a BED12 or a GFF with exons, create a new `BedTool` with just introns. The output is a bed6 file with the score column (5) being one of 'intron'/'utr5'/'utr3' """ # iterate over all the features in the gene. s = self.sort() if self.file_type == "gff": exon_iter = BedTool((f for f in s if f[2] == exon)).saveas() gene_iter = BedTool((f for f in s if f[2] == gene)).saveas() elif self.file_type == "bed": if s.field_count() == 12: exon_iter = s.bed6().saveas() gene_iter = s.saveas() else: # TODO: bed6. groupby on name and find smallest start, # largest stop. exon_iter = s gene_iter = None raise NotImplementedError( ".introns() only supported for bed12" "and GFF" ) else: raise NotImplementedError(".introns() only supported for BED and GFF") with open(BedTool._tmp(), "w") as fh: # group on the name. exon_intervals = IntervalFile(exon_iter.fn) for g in gene_iter: # search finds all, but we just want the ones that completely # overlap this gene. exons = [ e for e in, same_strand=True) if e.start >= g.start and e.end <= g.end ] for i, exon in enumerate(exons): # 5' utr between gene start and first intron if i == 0 and exon.start > g.start: utr = {"+": "utr5", "-": "utr3"}[g.strand] print( "%s\t%i\t%i\t%s\t%s\t%s" % (g.chrom, g.start, exon.start,, utr, g.strand), file=fh, ) elif i == len(exons) - 1 and exon.end < g.end: utr = {"+": "utr3", "-": "utr5"}[g.strand] print( "%s\t%i\t%i\t%s\t%s\t%s" % (g.chrom, exon.end, g.end,, utr, g.strand), file=fh, ) elif i != len(exons) - 1: istart = exon.end iend = exons[i + 1].start print( "%s\t%i\t%i\t%s\tintron\t%s" % (g.chrom, istart, iend,, g.strand), file=fh, ) return BedTool(
def features(self): """ Returns an iterable of features """ if hasattr(self, "next") or hasattr(self, "__next__"): return self return iter(self) @property def file_type(self): """ Return the type of the current file. One of ('bed','vcf','gff', 'bam', 'sam', 'empty'). >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> print(a.file_type) bed """ if not isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types): raise ValueError( "Checking file_type not supported for " "non-file BedTools. Use .saveas() to " "save as a temp file first." ) if self._isbam: self._file_type = "bam" else: try: self._file_type = six.advance_iterator(iter(self)).file_type except StopIteration: self._file_type = "empty" return self._file_type
[docs] def cut(self, indexes, stream=False): """ Analagous to unix `cut`. Similar to unix `cut` except indexes are 0-based, must be a list and the columns are returned in the order requested. This method returns a BedTool of results, which means that the indexes returned must be valid GFF/GTF/BED/SAM features. If you would like arbitrary columns -- say, just chrom and featuretype of a GFF, which would not comprise a valid feature -- then instead of this method, simply use indexes on each feature, e.g, >>> gff = pybedtools.example_bedtool('d.gff') >>> results = [(f[0], f[2]) for f in gff] In addition, `indexes` can contain keys of the GFF/GTF attributes, in which case the values are returned. e.g. 'gene_name' will return the corresponding name from a GTF, or 'start' will return the start attribute of a BED Interval. """ if stream: return BedTool(([f[attr] for attr in indexes] for f in self)) else: with open(self._tmp(), "w") as fh: for f in self: print("\t".join(map(str, [f[attr] for attr in indexes])), file=fh) return BedTool(
@classmethod def _tmp(self): """ Makes a tempfile and registers it in the BedTool.TEMPFILES class variable. Adds a "pybedtools." prefix and ".tmp" extension for easy deletion if you forget to call pybedtools.cleanup(). """ tmpfn = tempfile.NamedTemporaryFile( prefix=settings.tempfile_prefix, suffix=settings.tempfile_suffix, delete=False, ) tmpfn = BedTool.TEMPFILES.append(tmpfn) return tmpfn def __iter__(self): """ Dispatches the right iterator depending on how this BedTool was created """ if self._isbam: # Note: BAM class takes filename or stream, so self.fn is OK # here return BAM(self.fn) # Plain ol' filename if isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types): if not os.path.exists(self.fn): raise BedToolsFileError("{0} does not exist".format(self.fn)) if isGZIP(self.fn): return IntervalIterator(, "rt")) else: return IntervalIterator(open(self.fn, "r")) # Any other kind of input (streaming string from stdout; iterable of # Intervals, iterable of (chrom, start, stop) tuples, etc are handled # appropriately by IntervalIterator. else: return IntervalIterator(self.fn) @property def intervals(self): if isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types): return IntervalFile(self.fn) else: raise ValueError("Please convert to a file-based BedTool using saveas") def __repr__(self): if isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types): if os.path.exists(self.fn) or self.remote: return "<BedTool(%s)>" % self.fn else: return "<BedTool(MISSING FILE: %s)>" % self.fn elif isinstance(self.fn, BedTool): return repr(self.fn) else: return "<BedTool(%s)>" % repr(self.fn) def __str__(self): """ Returns the string representation of the whole `BedTool` """ items = [] for i in iter(self): i = str(i) if isinstance(i, bytes): i = i.decode("UTF-8") items.append(i) return "".join(items) def __len__(self): return self.count() def __eq__(self, other): if isinstance(other, six.string_types): other_str = other elif isinstance(other, BedTool): if not isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types) or not isinstance( other.fn, six.string_types ): raise NotImplementedError( "Testing equality only supported for" " BedTools that point to files" ) if str(self) == str(other): return True return False def __ne__(self, other): return not self.__eq__(other) def __getitem__(self, key): if isinstance(key, slice): return islice(self, key.start, key.stop, key.step) elif isinstance(key, int): return list(islice(self, key, key + 1))[0] else: raise ValueError( "Only slices or integers allowed for indexing " "into a BedTool" ) def __add__(self, other): try: result = self.intersect(other, u=True) except BEDToolsError as e: # BEDTools versions <2.20 would raise BEDToolsError if (self.file_type == "empty") or (other.file_type == "empty"): result = pybedtools.BedTool("", from_string=True) else: raise e return result def __sub__(self, other): try: result = self.intersect(other, v=True) except BEDToolsError: # BEDTools versions <2.20 would raise BEDToolsError if (self.file_type == "empty") and (other.file_type == "empty"): result = pybedtools.BedTool("", from_string=True) elif other.file_type == "empty": result = self.saveas() elif self.file_type == "empty": result = pybedtools.BedTool("", from_string=True) return result
[docs] def head(self, n=10, as_string=False): """ Prints the first *n* lines or returns them if as_string is True Note that this only opens the underlying file (gzipped or not), so it does not check to see if the file is a valid BED file. >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> a.head(2) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 1 100 feature1 0 + chr1 100 200 feature2 0 + <BLANKLINE> """ if not isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types): raise NotImplementedError( "head() not supported for non file-based BedTools" ) if as_string: return "".join(str(line) for line in self[:n]) if self._isbam: raise NotImplementedError("head() not supported for BAM") else: if isGZIP(self.fn): openfunc = openmode = "rt" else: openfunc = open openmode = "r" with openfunc(self.fn, openmode) as fin: for i, line in enumerate(fin): if i == (n): break print(line, end=" ")
[docs] def set_chromsizes(self, chromsizes): """ Prepare BedTool for operations that require chromosome coords. Set the chromsizes for this genome. If *chromsizes* is a string, it will be considered a genome assembly name. If that assembly name is not available in pybedtools.genome_registry, then it will be searched for on the UCSC Genome Browser. Example usage: >>> hg19 = pybedtools.chromsizes('hg19') >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> a = a.set_chromsizes(hg19) >>> print(a.chromsizes['chr1']) (0, 249250621) """ if isinstance(chromsizes, six.string_types): self.chromsizes = pybedtools.chromsizes(chromsizes) elif isinstance(chromsizes, dict): self.chromsizes = chromsizes else: raise ValueError( "Need to specify chromsizes either as a string" " (assembly name) or a dictionary" ) return self
def _collapse( self, iterable, fn=None, trackline=None, in_compressed=False, out_compressed=False, ): """ Collapses an iterable into file *fn* (or a new tempfile if *fn* is None). Returns the newly created filename. Parameters ---------- iterable : iter Any iterable object whose items can be converted to an Interval. fn : str Output filename, if None then creates a temp file for output trackline : str If not None, string to be added to the top of the output. Newline will be added. in_compressed : bool Indicates whether the input is compressed out_compressed : bool Indicates whether the output should be compressed """ if fn is None: fn = self._tmp() in_open_func = if in_compressed else open out_open_func = if out_compressed else open # special case: if BAM-format BedTool is provided, no trackline should # be supplied, and don't iterate -- copy the file wholesale if isinstance(iterable, BedTool) and iterable._isbam: if trackline: raise ValueError( "trackline provided, but input is a BAM " "file, which takes no track line" ) with open(fn, "wb") as out_: out_.write(open(self.fn, "rb").read()) return fn # If we're just working with filename-based BedTool objects, just copy # the files directly if isinstance(iterable, BedTool) and isinstance(iterable.fn, six.string_types): with out_open_func(fn, "wt") as out_: if sys.version_info > (3,0): in_ = in_open_func(iterable.fn, "rt", errors="ignore") else: in_ = in_open_func(iterable.fn, "rt") if trackline: out_.write(trackline.strip() + "\n") out_.writelines(in_) in_.close() else: with out_open_func(fn, "wt") as out_: for i in iterable: if isinstance(i, (list, tuple)): i = create_interval_from_list(list(i)) out_.write(str(i)) return fn def handle_kwargs(self, prog, arg_order, **kwargs): """ Handle most cases of BEDTool program calls, but leave the specifics up to individual methods. *prog* is a BEDTools program name, e.g., 'intersectBed'. *arg_order* lists any arguments that are sensitive to order. Everything else will be reverse-sorted. *kwargs* are passed directly from the calling method (like self.intersect). This method figures out, given how this BedTool was constructed, what to send to BEDTools programs -- for example, an open file to stdin with the `-` argument, or a filename with the `-a` argument. """ pybedtools.logger.debug( "BedTool.handle_kwargs() got these kwargs:\n%s", pprint.pformat(kwargs) ) # If you pass in a list, how should it be converted to a BedTools arg? default_list_delimiter = " " list_delimiters = { "annotateBed": " ", "getOverlap": ",", "groupBy": ",", "multiIntersectBed": " ", "mergeBed": ",", "intersectBed": " ", "mapBed": ",", } stdin = None # ----------------------------------------------------------------- # Decide how to send instream1 to BEDTools. If there's no implicit # instream1 arg, then do nothing. # try: # e.g., 'a' for intersectBed if self._isbam: inarg1 = _bam_registry[prog] else: inarg1 = _implicit_registry[prog] # e.g., self.fn or 'a.bed' or an iterator... instream1 = kwargs[inarg1] # If it's a BedTool, then get underlying stream if isinstance(instream1, BedTool): instream1 = instream1.fn # Filename? No pipe, just provide the file if isinstance(instream1, six.string_types): kwargs[inarg1] = instream1 stdin = None # Open file? Pipe it # elif isinstance(instream1, file): # kwargs[inarg1] = 'stdin' # stdin = instream1 # A generator or iterator: pipe it as a generator of lines else: kwargs[inarg1] = "stdin" stdin = (str(i) for i in instream1) except KeyError: pass # ----------------------------------------------------------------- # Decide how to send instream2 to BEDTools. try: # e.g., 'b' for intersectBed inarg2 = _other_registry[prog] # e.g., another BedTool instream2 = kwargs[inarg2] # Get stream if BedTool if isinstance(instream2, BedTool): instream2 = instream2.fn # Filename if isinstance(instream2, six.string_types): kwargs[inarg2] = instream2 # If it's a list of strings, then we need to figure out if it's # a list of filenames or a list of intervals (see issue #156) # # Several options: # # - assume intervals have tabs but filenames don't # - assume that, upon being split on tabs, an interval is >=3 fields # - try creating an interval out of the first thing, success means interval # # The last seems the most robust. It does allow filenames with # tabs; deciding whether or not such filenames are a good idea is # left to the user. # elif isinstance(instream2, (list, tuple)) and isinstance( instream2[0], six.string_types ): try: _ = create_interval_from_list(instream2[0].split("\t")) kwargs[inarg2] = self._collapse(instream2) except IndexError: kwargs[inarg2] = instream2 # Otherwise we need to collapse it in order to send to BEDTools # programs else: kwargs[inarg2] = self._collapse(instream2) except KeyError: pass # If stream not specified, then a tempfile will be created if kwargs.pop("stream", None): tmp = None else: output = kwargs.pop("output", None) if output: tmp = output else: tmp = self._tmp() additional_args = kwargs.pop("additional_args", None) # Parse the kwargs into BEDTools-ready args cmds = [prog] # arg_order mechanism added to fix #345 if arg_order is None: arg_order = [] for arg in arg_order: if arg in kwargs: val = kwargs.pop(arg) cmds.append("-" + arg) cmds.append(val) # The reverse-sort is a temp fix for issue #81 for key, value in sorted(list(kwargs.items()), reverse=True): if isinstance(value, bool): if value: cmds.append("-" + key) else: continue elif isinstance(value, list) or isinstance(value, tuple): value = list(map(str, value)) try: delim = list_delimiters[prog] except KeyError: delim = default_list_delimiter if delim == " ": cmds.append("-" + key) cmds.extend(value) # make comma-separated list if that's what's needed else: cmds.append("-" + key) cmds.append(delim.join(value)) else: cmds.append("-" + key) cmds.append(str(value)) if additional_args: cmds.append(additional_args) return cmds, tmp, stdin def check_genome(self, **kwargs): """ Handles the different ways of specifying a genome in kwargs: g='genome.file' specifies a file directly genome='dm3' gets the file from genome registry self.chromsizes could be a dict.\ """ # If both g and genome are missing, assume self.chromsizes if ("g" not in kwargs) and ("genome" not in kwargs): if hasattr(self, "chromsizes"): kwargs["g"] = self.chromsizes else: raise ValueError( 'No genome specified. Use the "g" or ' '"genome" kwargs, or use the ' ".set_chromsizes() method" ) # If both specified, rather than make an implicit decision, raise an # exception if "g" in kwargs and "genome" in kwargs: raise ValueError('Cannot specify both "g" and "genome"') # Something like genome='dm3' was specified if "g" not in kwargs and "genome" in kwargs: if isinstance(kwargs["genome"], dict): genome_dict = kwargs["genome"] else: genome_dict = pybedtools.chromsizes(kwargs["genome"]) genome_file = pybedtools.chromsizes_to_file(genome_dict) kwargs["g"] = genome_file del kwargs["genome"] # By the time we get here, 'g' is specified. # If a dict was provided, convert to tempfile here if isinstance(kwargs["g"], dict): kwargs["g"] = pybedtools.chromsizes_to_file(kwargs["g"]) if not os.path.exists(kwargs["g"]): msg = 'Genome file "%s" does not exist' % (kwargs["g"]) if six.PY2: raise ValueError(msg) raise FileNotFoundError(msg) return kwargs
[docs] @_log_to_history def remove_invalid(self): """ Remove invalid features that may break BEDTools programs. >>> a = pybedtools.BedTool("chr1 10 100\\nchr1 10 1", ... from_string=True) >>> print(a.remove_invalid()) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 10 100 <BLANKLINE> """ tmp = self._tmp() fout = open(tmp, "w") # If it's a file-based BedTool -- which is likely, if we're trying to # remove invalid features -- then we need to parse it line by line. if isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types): i = IntervalIterator(open(self.fn, "r")) else: tmp = self.saveas() i = IntervalIterator(open(tmp.fn, "r")) def _generator(): while True: try: feature = next(i) if feature.start <= feature.stop: yield feature else: continue except pybedtools.MalformedBedLineError: continue except OverflowError: # This can happen if coords are negative continue except IndexError: continue except StopIteration: break return BedTool(_generator())
[docs] def all_hits(self, interval, same_strand=False, overlap=0.0): """ Return all intervals that overlap `interval`. Calls the `all_hits` method of an IntervalFile to return all intervals in this current BedTool that overlap `interval`. Require that overlaps have the same strand with same_strand=True. Notes: If this current BedTool is generator-based, it will be converted into a file first. If this current BedTool refers to a BAM file, it will be converted to a BED file first using default arguments. If you don't want this to happen, please convert to BED first before using this method. """ if not isinstance(interval, Interval): raise ValueError("Need an Interval instance") fn = self.fn if not isinstance(fn, six.string_types): fn = self.saveas().fn if self._isbam: fn = self.bam_to_bed().fn interval_file = pybedtools.IntervalFile(fn) return interval_file.all_hits(interval, same_strand, overlap)
[docs] def any_hits(self, interval, same_strand=False, overlap=0.0): """ Return whether or not any intervals overlap `interval`. Calls the `any_hits` method of an IntervalFile. If there were any hits within `interval` in this BedTool, then return 1; otherwise 0. Require that overlaps have the same strand with same_strand=True. Notes: If this current BedTool is generator-based, it will be converted into a file first. If this current BedTool refers to a BAM file, it will be converted to a BED file first using default arguments. If you don't want this to happen, please convert to BED first before using this method. """ if not isinstance(interval, Interval): raise ValueError("Need an Interval instance") fn = self.fn if not isinstance(fn, six.string_types): fn = self.saveas().fn if self._isbam: fn = self.bam_to_bed().fn interval_file = pybedtools.IntervalFile(fn) return interval_file.any_hits(interval, same_strand, overlap)
[docs] def count_hits(self, interval, same_strand=False, overlap=0.0): """ Return the number of intervals that overlap `interval`. Calls the `count_hits` method of an IntervalFile. Returns the number of valid hits in this BedTool that overlap `interval`. Require that overlaps have the same strand with same_strand=True. Notes: If this current BedTool is generator-based, it will be converted into a file first. If this current BedTool refers to a BAM file, it will be converted to a BED file first using default arguments. If you don't want this to happen, please convert to BED first before using this method. """ if not isinstance(interval, Interval): raise ValueError("Need an Interval instance") fn = self.fn if not isinstance(fn, six.string_types): fn = self.saveas().fn if self._isbam: fn = self.bam_to_bed().fn interval_file = pybedtools.IntervalFile(fn) return interval_file.count_hits(interval, same_strand, overlap)
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="bed12ToBed6", implicit="i", bam=None, other=None) def bed6(self, **kwargs): """ Wraps `bedtools bed12tobed6`. """ pass
# Alias for backward compatibility bed12tobed6 = bed6
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="bamToBed", implicit="i", other=None, nonbam="ALL", bam="i") def bam_to_bed(self, **kwargs): """ Wraps `bedtools bamtobed`. """
# Alias for backward compatibility bamtobed = bam_to_bed @_wraps(prog="bedToBam", implicit="i", uses_genome=True, force_bam=True) def _bed_to_bam(self): """ Wraps bedToBam and is called internally for BED/GFF/VCF files by self.to_bam (which needs to do something different for SAM files...) """
[docs] @_log_to_history def to_bam(self, **kwargs): """ Wraps `bedtools bedtobam` If self.fn is in BED/VCF/GFF format, call BEDTools' bedToBam. If self.fn is in SAM format, then create a header out of the genome file and then convert using `samtools`. """ if self.file_type == "bam": return self if self.file_type in ("bed", "gff", "vcf"): return self._bed_to_bam(**kwargs) # TODO: to maintain backwards compatibility we go from Interval to # AlignedSegment. if self.file_type == "sam": # Use pysam, but construct the header out of a provided genome # file. # construct a genome out of whatever kwargs were passed in kwargs = self.check_genome(**kwargs) # Build a header that we can use for the output BAM file. genome = dict(i.split() for i in open(kwargs["g"])) SQ = [] ref_ids = {} text_header = ["@HD\tVN:1.0"] for i, (k, v) in enumerate(genome.items()): SQ.append(dict(SN=k, LN=int(v))) ref_ids[k] = i text_header.append("@SQ\tSN:{0}\tLN:{1}".format(k, v)) # Here's the pysam-formatted header header = {"HD": {"VN": "1.0"}, "SQ": SQ} # And the text-format header text_header = "\n".join(text_header) + "\n" # The strategy is to write an actual SAM file to disk, along with # a header, and then read that back in. # # Painfully inefficient, but this will change once all py2 tests # pass. sam_tmp = self._tmp() bam_tmp = self._tmp() with open(sam_tmp, "w") as fout: fout.write(text_header) for interval in self: fout.write("\t".join(map(str, interval.fields)) + "\n") samfile = pysam.AlignmentFile(sam_tmp, "r") bamfile = pysam.AlignmentFile(bam_tmp, "wb", template=samfile) for alignment in samfile: bamfile.write(alignment) samfile.close() bamfile.close() new_bedtool = BedTool(bam_tmp) new_bedtool._isbam = True return new_bedtool
# Alias for backward compatibility bedtobam = to_bam
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="intersectBed", implicit="a", other="b", bam="abam", nonbam="bed", arg_order=["a", "abam"]) def intersect(self): """ Wraps `bedtools intersect`. """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps( prog="fastaFromBed", implicit="bed", bam=None, other="fi", make_tempfile_for="fo", check_stderr=_check_sequence_stderr, add_to_bedtool={"fo": "seqfn"}, ) def sequence(self): ''' Wraps `bedtools getfasta`. *fi* is passed in by the user; *bed* is automatically passed in as the bedfile of this object; *fo* by default is a temp file. Use save_seqs() to save as a file. The end result is that this BedTool will have an attribute, self.seqfn, that points to the new fasta file. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.BedTool(""" ... chr1 1 10 ... chr1 50 55""", from_string=True) >>> fasta = pybedtools.example_filename('test.fa') >>> a = a.sequence(fi=fasta) >>> print(open(a.seqfn).read()) >chr1:1-10 GATGAGTCT >chr1:50-55 CCATC <BLANKLINE> '''
# Alias for backwards compatibility getfasta = sequence
[docs] @staticmethod def seq(loc, fasta): """ Return just the sequence from a region string or a single location >>> fn = pybedtools.example_filename('test.fa') >>> BedTool.seq('chr1:2-10', fn) 'GATGAGTCT' >>> BedTool.seq(('chr1', 1, 10), fn) 'GATGAGTCT' """ if isinstance(loc, six.string_types): chrom, start_end = loc.split(":") start, end = list(map(int, start_end.split("-"))) start -= 1 else: chrom, start, end = loc[0], loc[1], loc[2] loc = BedTool("%s\t%i\t%i" % (chrom, start, end), from_string=True) lseq = loc.sequence(fi=fasta) return "".join([l.rstrip() for l in open(lseq.seqfn, "r") if l[0] != ">"])
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps( prog="nucBed", implicit="bed", other="fi", check_stderr=_check_sequence_stderr ) def nucleotide_content(self): """ Wraps `bedtools nuc`. Profiles nucleotide content. The returned BED file contains extra information about the nucleotide content """
# Alias for backwards compatibility nuc = nucleotide_content
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="multiBamCov", implicit="bed") def multi_bam_coverage(self): """ Wraps `bedtools multicov`. Pass a list of sorted and indexed BAM files as `bams` """
# Alias for backwards compatibility multicov = multi_bam_coverage
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="subtractBed", implicit="a", other="b", bam=None) def subtract(self): """ Wraps `bedtools subtract`. Subtracts from another BED file and returns a new BedTool object. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> b = pybedtools.example_bedtool('b.bed') Do a "stranded" subtraction: >>> c = a.subtract(b, s=True) Require 50% of features in `a` to overlap: >>> c = a.subtract(b, f=0.5) """ kwargs["b"] = b if "a" not in kwargs: kwargs["a"] = self.fn cmds, tmp, stdin = self.handle_kwargs(prog="subtractBed", **kwargs) stream = call_bedtools(cmds, tmp, stdin=stdin) return BedTool(stream)
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="slopBed", implicit="i", other=None, bam=None, uses_genome=True) def slop(self): """ Wraps `bedtools slop`. """
@_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="shiftBed", implicit="i", other=None, bam=None, uses_genome=True) def shift(self): """ Wraps `bedtools shift`. Shift each feature by user-defined number of bases. Returns a new BedTool object. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') Shift every feature by 5bp: >>> b = a.shift(genome='hg19', s=5) >>> print(b) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 6 105 feature1 0 + chr1 105 205 feature2 0 + chr1 155 505 feature3 0 - chr1 905 955 feature4 0 + <BLANKLINE> Shift features on the '+' strand by -1bp and on '-' strand by +3bp: >>> b = a.shift(genome='hg19', p=-1, m=3) >>> print(b) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 0 99 feature1 0 + chr1 99 199 feature2 0 + chr1 153 503 feature3 0 - chr1 899 949 feature4 0 + <BLANKLINE> # Disabling, see Shift features by a fraction of their length (0.50): #>>> b = a.shift(genome='hg19', pct=True, s=0.50) #>>> print(b) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE #chr1 50 149 feature1 0 + #chr1 150 250 feature2 0 + #chr1 325 675 feature3 0 - #chr1 925 975 feature4 0 + #<BLANKLINE> """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="mergeBed", implicit="i", other=None, bam=None) def merge(self): """ Wraps `bedtools merge`. Merge overlapping features together. Returns a new BedTool object. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') Merge: >>> c = a.merge() Allow merging of features 500 bp apart: >>> c = a.merge(d=500) """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="closestBed", implicit="a", other="b", bam=None) def closest(self): """ Wraps `bedtools closest`. Return a new BedTool object containing closest features in *b*. Note that the resulting file is no longer a valid BED format; use the special "_closest" methods to work with the resulting file. Example usage:: a = BedTool('in.bed') # get the closest feature in 'other.bed' on the same strand b = a.closest('other.bed', s=True) """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="windowBed", implicit="a", other="b", bam="abam", nonbam="bed") def window(self): """ Wraps `bedtools window`. Example usage:: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> b = pybedtools.example_bedtool('b.bed') >>> print(a.window(b, w=1000)) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 1 100 feature1 0 + chr1 155 200 feature5 0 - chr1 1 100 feature1 0 + chr1 800 901 feature6 0 + chr1 100 200 feature2 0 + chr1 155 200 feature5 0 - chr1 100 200 feature2 0 + chr1 800 901 feature6 0 + chr1 150 500 feature3 0 - chr1 155 200 feature5 0 - chr1 150 500 feature3 0 - chr1 800 901 feature6 0 + chr1 900 950 feature4 0 + chr1 155 200 feature5 0 - chr1 900 950 feature4 0 + chr1 800 901 feature6 0 + <BLANKLINE> """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="shuffleBed", implicit="i", other=None, bam=None, uses_genome=True) def shuffle(self): """ Wraps `bedtools shuffle`. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> seed = 1 # so this test always returns the same results >>> b = a.shuffle(genome='hg19', chrom=True, seed=seed) >>> print(b) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 123081365 123081464 feature1 0 + chr1 243444570 243444670 feature2 0 + chr1 194620241 194620591 feature3 0 - chr1 172792873 172792923 feature4 0 + <BLANKLINE> """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="sortBed", implicit="i") def sort(self): """ Wraps `bedtools sort`. Note that chromosomes are sorted lexograpically, so chr12 will come before chr9. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.BedTool(''' ... chr9 300 400 ... chr1 100 200 ... chr1 1 50 ... chr12 1 100 ... chr9 500 600 ... ''', from_string=True) >>> print(a.sort()) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 1 50 chr1 100 200 chr12 1 100 chr9 300 400 chr9 500 600 <BLANKLINE> """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="annotateBed", implicit="i") def annotate(self): """ Wraps `bedtools annotate`. Annotate this BedTool with a list of other files. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> b_fn = pybedtools.example_filename('b.bed') >>> print(a.annotate(files=b_fn)) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 1 100 feature1 0 + 0.000000 chr1 100 200 feature2 0 + 0.450000 chr1 150 500 feature3 0 - 0.128571 chr1 900 950 feature4 0 + 0.020000 <BLANKLINE> """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="flankBed", implicit="i", uses_genome=True) def flank(self): """ Wraps `bedtools flank`. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> print(a.flank(genome='hg19', b=100)) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 0 1 feature1 0 + chr1 100 200 feature1 0 + chr1 0 100 feature2 0 + chr1 200 300 feature2 0 + chr1 50 150 feature3 0 - chr1 500 600 feature3 0 - chr1 800 900 feature4 0 + chr1 950 1050 feature4 0 + <BLANKLINE> """ kwargs = self.check_genome(**kwargs) if "i" not in kwargs: kwargs["i"] = self.fn cmds, tmp, stdin = self.handle_kwargs(prog="flankBed", **kwargs) stream = call_bedtools(cmds, tmp, stdin=stdin) return BedTool(stream)
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps( prog="genomeCoverageBed", implicit="i", bam="ibam", genome_none_if=["ibam"], genome_ok_if=["ibam"], uses_genome=True, nonbam="ALL", ) def genome_coverage(self): """ Wraps `bedtools genomecov`. Note that some invocations of `bedtools genomecov` do not result in a properly-formatted BED file. For example, the default behavior is to report a histogram of coverage. Iterating over the resulting, non-BED-format file will raise exceptions in pybedtools' parser. Consider using the `BedTool.to_dataframe` method to convert these non-BED files into a pandas DataFrame for further use. Example usage: BAM file input does not require a genome: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('x.bam') >>> b = a.genome_coverage(bg=True) >>> b.head(3) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr2L 9329 9365 1 chr2L 10212 10248 1 chr2L 10255 10291 1 Other input does require a genome: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('x.bed') >>> b = a.genome_coverage(bg=True, genome='dm3') >>> b.head(3) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr2L 9329 9365 1 chr2L 10212 10248 1 chr2L 10255 10291 1 Non-BED format results: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('x.bed') >>> b = a.genome_coverage(genome='dm3') >>> df = b.to_dataframe(names=['chrom', 'depth', 'n', 'chromsize', 'fraction']) """
# Alias for backwards compatibility genomecov = genome_coverage
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="coverageBed", implicit="a", other="b", bam="abam", nonbam="ALL") def coverage(self): """ Wraps `bedtools coverage`. Note that starting in version 2.24.0, BEDTools swapped the semantics of the "a" and "b" files. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> b = pybedtools.example_bedtool('b.bed') >>> c = b.coverage(a) >>> c.head(3) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 155 200 feature5 0 - 2 45 45 1.0000000 chr1 800 901 feature6 0 + 1 1 101 0.0099010 """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps( prog="maskFastaFromBed", implicit="bed", other="fi", make_tempfile_for="fo", add_to_bedtool={"fo": "seqfn"}, check_stderr=_check_sequence_stderr, ) def mask_fasta(self): """ Wraps `bedtools maskfasta`. Masks a fasta file at the positions in a BED file and saves result as 'out' and stores the filename in seqfn. >>> a = pybedtools.BedTool('chr1 100 110', from_string=True) >>> fasta_fn = pybedtools.example_filename('test.fa') >>> a = a.mask_fasta(fi=fasta_fn, fo='masked.fa.example') >>> b = a.slop(b=2, genome='hg19') >>> b = b.sequence(fi=a.seqfn) >>> print(open(b.seqfn).read()) >chr1:98-112 TTNNNNNNNNNNAT <BLANKLINE> >>> os.unlink('masked.fa.example') >>> if os.path.exists('masked.fa.example.fai'): ... os.unlink('masked.fa.example.fai') """
# Alias for backwards compatibility maskfasta = mask_fasta
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="complementBed", implicit="i", uses_genome=True) def complement(self): """ Wraps `bedtools complement`. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> a.complement(genome='hg19').head(5) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 0 1 chr1 500 900 chr1 950 249250621 chr10 0 135534747 chr11 0 135006516 """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="getOverlap", implicit="i") def overlap(self): """ Wraps `bedtools overlap`. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> b = pybedtools.example_bedtool('b.bed') >>> c = a.window(b, w=10).overlap(cols=[2,3,8,9]) >>> print(c) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 100 200 feature2 0 + chr1 155 200 feature5 0 - 45 chr1 150 500 feature3 0 - chr1 155 200 feature5 0 - 45 chr1 900 950 feature4 0 + chr1 800 901 feature6 0 + 1 <BLANKLINE> """
# TODO: needs test files and doctests written
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="pairToBed", implicit="a", other="b", bam="abam", nonbam="bedpe") def pair_to_bed(self): """ Wraps `bedtools pairtobed`. """
# Alias for backwards compatibility pairtobed = pair_to_bed
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="pairToPair", implicit="a", other="b") def pair_to_pair(self): """ Wraps `bedtools pairtopair`. """
# Alias for backwards compatibility pairtopair = pair_to_pair
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="groupBy", implicit="i") def groupby(self): """ Wraps `bedtools groupby`. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('gdc.gff') >>> b = pybedtools.example_bedtool('gdc.bed') >>> c = a.intersect(b, c=True) >>> d = c.groupby(g=[1, 4, 5], c=10, o=['sum']) >>> print(d) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr2L 41 70 0 chr2L 71 130 2 chr2L 131 170 4 chr2L 171 200 0 chr2L 201 220 1 chr2L 41 130 2 chr2L 171 220 1 chr2L 41 220 7 chr2L 161 230 6 chr2L 41 220 7 <BLANKLINE> """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="tagBam", implicit="i", bam="i") def tag_bam(self): """ Wraps `bedtools tag`. `files` and `labels` should lists of equal length. """
# Alias for backwards compatibility tag = tag_bam
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="mapBed", implicit="a", other="b") def map(self): """ Wraps `bedtools map`; See also :meth:`BedTool.each`. """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="multiIntersectBed", uses_genome=True, genome_if=["empty"]) def multi_intersect(self): """ Wraps `bedtools multiintersect`. Provide a list of filenames as the "i" argument. e.g. if you already have BedTool objects then use their `.fn` attribute, like this:: >>> x = pybedtools.BedTool() >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> b = pybedtools.example_bedtool('b.bed') >>> result = x.multi_intersect(i=[a.fn, b.fn]) >>> print(result) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 1 155 1 1 1 0 chr1 155 200 2 1,2 1 1 chr1 200 500 1 1 1 0 chr1 800 900 1 2 0 1 chr1 900 901 2 1,2 1 1 chr1 901 950 1 1 1 0 <BLANKLINE> """
# Alias for backwards compatibility multiinter = multi_intersect
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="randomBed", uses_genome=True) def random(self): """ Wraps `bedtools random`. Since this method does not operate on an existing file, create a BedTool with no arguments and then call this method, e.g., >>> x = BedTool() >>> y = x.random(l=100, n=10, genome='hg19') """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps("bedpeToBam", implicit="i", uses_genome=True, force_bam=True) def bedpe_to_bam(self): """ Wraps `bedtools bedpetobam`. """
# Alias for backwards compatibility bedpetobam = bedpe_to_bam
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="clusterBed", implicit="i") def cluster(self): """ Wraps `bedtools cluster`. """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="unionBedGraphs") def union_bedgraphs(self): """ Wraps `bedtools unionbedg`. Warning: using the `header=True` kwarg will result in a file that is not in true BED format, which may break downstream analysis. """
# Alias for backwards compatibility unionbedg = union_bedgraphs
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="windowMaker", uses_genome=True, genome_none_if=["b"], other="b", arg_order=["w"]) def window_maker(self): """ Wraps `bedtools makewindows`. """
# Alias for backwards compatibility makewindows = window_maker
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="expandCols", implicit="i") def expand(self): """ Wraps `bedtools expand` """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps(prog="bedToIgv", implicit="i", add_to_bedtool={"stdout": "igv_script"}) def igv(self): """ Wraps `bedtools igv`. The resulting BedTool will have a new attribute `igv_script`. This attribute is a temp filename containing the IGV script. """
[docs] @_log_to_history @_wraps( prog="bamToFastq", implicit="i", bam="i", make_tempfile_for="fq", add_to_bedtool={"fq": "fastq"}, ) def bam_to_fastq(self): """ Wraps `bedtools bamtofastq`. The `fq` argument is required. The resulting BedTool will have a new attribute, `fastq`. """
# Alias for backwards compatibility bamtofastq = bam_to_fastq
[docs] @_wraps( prog="jaccard", implicit="a", other="b", does_not_return_bedtool=_jaccard_output_to_dict, ) def jaccard(self): """ Returns a dictionary with keys (intersection, union, jaccard). """
[docs] @_wraps( prog="reldist", implicit="a", other="b", does_not_return_bedtool=_reldist_output_handler, ) def reldist(self): """ If detail=False, then return a dictionary with keys (reldist, count, total, fraction), which is the summary of the bedtools reldist. Otherwise return a BedTool, with the relative distance for each interval in A in the last column. """
@_wraps(prog="sample", implicit="i", bam="i") def sample(self): """ Wraps 'sample'. """ @_wraps( prog="fisher", implicit="a", other="b", uses_genome=True, does_not_return_bedtool=helpers.FisherOutput, ) def fisher(self): """ Wraps 'fisher'. Returns an object representing the output. >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> b = pybedtools.example_bedtool('b.bed') >>> f = a.fisher(b, genome='hg19') >>> print(f) # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE # Number of query intervals: 4 # Number of db intervals: 2 # Number of overlaps: 3 # Number of possible intervals (estimated): 13958448 # phyper(3 - 1, 4, 13958448 - 4, 2, lower.tail=F) # Contingency Table Of Counts #_________________________________________ # | in -b | not in -b | # in -a | 3 | 1 | # not in -a | 0 | 13958444 | #_________________________________________ # p-values for fisher's exact test left right two-tail ratio 1 8.8247e-21 8.8247e-21 inf <BLANKLINE> >>> f.table['not in -a']['in -b'] 0 >>> f.table['not in -a']['not in -b'] 13958444 >>> f.table['in -a']['in -b'] 3 >>> f.table['in -a']['not in -b'] 1 >>> f.two_tail 8.8247e-21 """ @_wraps(prog="split", implicit="i", does_not_return_bedtool=helpers.SplitOutput) def splitbed(self): """ Wraps 'bedtools split'. BedTool objects have long had a `split` method which splits intervals according to a custom function. Now that BEDTools has a `split` tool, the method name conflicts. To maintain backwards compatibility, the method wrapping the BEDTools command is called `splitbed`. Since this tool does not return a single BED file, the method parses the output and returns a SplitOutput object, which includes an attribute, `bedtools`, that is a list of BedTool objects created from the split files. To keep the working directory clean, you may want to consider using `prefix=BedTool._tmp()` to get a temp file that will be deleted when Python exits cleanly. >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> s = a.splitbed(n=2, p="split") >>> assert len(a) == 4, len(a) >>> assert len(s.bedtools) == 2 >>> print(s.bedtools[0]) # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 150 500 feature3 0 - <BLANKLINE> >>> print(s.bedtools[1]) # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 100 200 feature2 0 + chr1 1 100 feature1 0 + chr1 900 950 feature4 0 + <BLANKLINE> """ @_wraps(prog="spacing", implicit="i") def spacing(self): """ Wraps `bedtools spacing` >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> print(a.spacing()) # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 1 100 feature1 0 + . chr1 100 200 feature2 0 + 0 chr1 150 500 feature3 0 - -1 chr1 900 950 feature4 0 + 400 """
[docs] def count(self): """ Count the number features in this BedTool. Number of features in BED file. Does the same thing as len(self), which actually just calls this method. Only counts the actual features. Ignores any track lines, browser lines, lines starting with a "#", or blank lines. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> a.count() 4 """ if hasattr(self, "next") or hasattr(self, "__next__"): return sum(1 for _ in self) return sum(1 for _ in iter(self))
[docs] def print_sequence(self): """ Print the sequence that was retrieved by BedTool.sequence. See usage example in :meth:`BedTool.sequence`. """ if not hasattr(self, "seqfn"): raise ValueError("Use .sequence(fasta) to get the sequence first") f = open(self.seqfn) s = f.close() return s
[docs] def save_seqs(self, fn): """ Save sequences, after calling BedTool.sequence. In order to use this function, you need to have called the :meth:`BedTool.sequence()` method. A new BedTool object is returned which references the newly saved file. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.BedTool(''' ... chr1 1 10 ... chr1 50 55''', from_string=True) >>> fasta = pybedtools.example_filename('test.fa') >>> a = a.sequence(fi=fasta) >>> print(open(a.seqfn).read()) >chr1:1-10 GATGAGTCT >chr1:50-55 CCATC <BLANKLINE> >>> b = a.save_seqs('example.fa') >>> assert open(b.fn).read() == open(a.fn).read() >>> if os.path.exists('example.fa'): ... os.unlink('example.fa') """ if not hasattr(self, "seqfn"): raise ValueError("Use .sequence(fasta) to get the sequence first") fout = open(fn, "w") fout.write(open(self.seqfn).read()) fout.close() new_bedtool = BedTool(self.fn) new_bedtool.seqfn = fn return new_bedtool
[docs] def randomstats( self, other, iterations, new=False, genome_fn=None, include_distribution=False, **kwargs ): """ Dictionary of results from many randomly shuffled intersections. Sends args and kwargs to :meth:`BedTool.randomintersection` and compiles results into a dictionary with useful stats. Requires numpy. If `include_distribution` is True, then the dictionary will include the full distribution; otherwise, the distribution is deleted and cleaned up to save on memory usage. This is one possible way of assigning significance to overlaps between two files. See, for example: Negre N, Brown CD, Shah PK, Kheradpour P, Morrison CA, et al. 2010 A Comprehensive Map of Insulator Elements for the Drosophila Genome. PLoS Genet 6(1): e1000814. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000814 Example usage: Make chromsizes a very small genome for this example: >>> chromsizes = {'chr1':(1,1000)} >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed').set_chromsizes(chromsizes) >>> b = pybedtools.example_bedtool('b.bed') >>> try: ... results = a.randomstats(b, 100, debug=True) ... except ImportError: ... pass *results* is a dictionary that you can inspect. (Note that the following examples are not run as part of the doctests to avoid forcing users to install NumPy just to pass tests) The actual overlap:: print(results['actual']) 3 The median of all randomized overlaps:: print(results['median randomized']) 2.0 The percentile of the actual overlap in the distribution of randomized overlaps, which can be used to get an empirical p-value:: print(results['percentile']) 90.0 """ if ("intersect_kwargs" not in kwargs) or (kwargs["intersect_kwargs"] is None): kwargs["intersect_kwargs"] = {"u": True} try: import numpy as np except ImportError: raise ImportError("Need to install NumPy for stats...") def percentileofscore(a, score): """ copied from scipy.stats.percentileofscore, to avoid dependency on scipy. """ a = np.array(a) n = len(a) if not (np.any(a == score)): a = np.append(a, score) a_len = np.array(list(range(len(a)))) else: a_len = np.array(list(range(len(a)))) + 1.0 a = np.sort(a) idx = tuple([a == score]) pct = (np.mean(a_len[idx]) / n) * 100.0 return pct if isinstance(other, six.string_types): other = BedTool(other) else: assert isinstance( other, BedTool ), "Either filename or another BedTool instance required" # Actual (unshuffled) counts. i_kwargs = kwargs["intersect_kwargs"] actual = len(self.intersect(other, **i_kwargs)) # List of counts from randomly shuffled versions. # Length of counts == *iterations*. if not new: distribution = self.randomintersection( other, iterations=iterations, **kwargs ) else: # use new mechanism if genome_fn is None: raise ValueError( "`genome_fn` must be provided if using the " "new _randomintersection mechanism" ) distribution = self._randomintersection( other, iterations=iterations, genome_fn=genome_fn, **kwargs ) distribution = np.array(list(distribution)) # Median of distribution med_count = np.median(distribution) n = float(len(distribution)) frac_above = sum(distribution > actual) / n frac_below = sum(distribution < actual) / n normalized = actual / med_count lower_thresh = 2.5 upper_thresh = 97.5 lower, upper = np.percentile(distribution, [lower_thresh, upper_thresh]) actual_percentile = percentileofscore(distribution, actual) d = { "iterations": iterations, "actual": actual, "file_a": self.fn, "file_b": other.fn, self.fn: len(self), other.fn: len(other), "self": len(self), "other": len(other), "frac randomized above actual": frac_above, "frac randomized below actual": frac_below, "median randomized": med_count, "normalized": normalized, "percentile": actual_percentile, "lower_%sth" % lower_thresh: lower, "upper_%sth" % upper_thresh: upper, } if include_distribution: d["distribution"] = distribution else: del distribution return d
[docs] def random_op(self, *args, **kwargs): """ For backwards compatibility; see BedTool.parallel_apply instead. """ return self.parallel_apply(*args, **kwargs)
[docs] def parallel_apply( self, iterations, func, func_args, func_kwargs, processes=1, _orig_pool=None ): """ Generalized method for applying a function in parallel. Typically used when having to do many random shufflings. `func_args` and `func_kwargs` will be passed to `func` each time in `iterations`, and these iterations will be split across `processes` processes. Notes on the function, `func`: * the function should manually remove any tempfiles created. This is because the BedTool.TEMPFILES list of auto-created tempfiles does not share state across processes, so things will not get cleaned up automatically as they do in a single-process pybedtools session. * this includes deleting any "chromsizes" or genome files -- generally it will be best to require a genome filename in `func_kwargs` if you'll be using any BedTool methods that accept the `g` kwarg. * the function should be a module-level function (rather than a class method) because class methods can't be pickled across process boundaries * the function can have any signature and have any return value `_orig_pool` can be a previously-created multiprocessing.Pool instance; otherwise, a new Pool will be created with `processes` """ if processes == 1: for it in range(iterations): yield func(*func_args, **func_kwargs) raise StopIteration if _orig_pool: p = _orig_pool else: p = multiprocessing.Pool(processes) iterations_each = [iterations / processes] * processes iterations_each[-1] += iterations % processes # FYI some useful info on apply_async: # # python-multiprocessing-pool-when-to-use-apply-apply-async-or-map # # Here, we don't care about the order, and don't want the subprocesses # to block. results = [ p.apply_async(func, func_args, func_kwargs) for it in range(iterations) ] for r in results: yield r.get() raise StopIteration
[docs] def random_jaccard( self, other, genome_fn=None, iterations=None, processes=1, _orig_pool=None, shuffle_kwargs=None, jaccard_kwargs=None, ): """ Computes the naive Jaccard statistic (intersection divided by union). .. note:: If you don't need the randomization functionality of this method, you can use the simpler BedTool.jaccard method instead. See Favorov et al. (2012) PLoS Comput Biol 8(5): e1002529 for more info on the Jaccard statistic for intersections. If `iterations` is None, then do not perform random shufflings. If `iterations` is an integer, perform `iterations` random shufflings, each time computing the Jaccard statistic to build an empirical distribution. `genome_fn` will also be needed; optional `processes` will split the iteations across multiple CPUs. Returns a tuple of the observed Jaccard statistic and a list of the randomized statistics (which will be an empty list if `iterations` was None). """ if shuffle_kwargs is None: shuffle_kwargs = {} if jaccard_kwargs is None: jaccard_kwargs = {} if not genome_fn: raise ValueError("Need a genome filename in order to perform randomization") return list( self.parallel_apply( iterations=iterations, func=pybedtools.stats.random_jaccard, func_args=(self, other), func_kwargs=dict( genome_fn=genome_fn, shuffle_kwargs=shuffle_kwargs, jaccard_kwargs=jaccard_kwargs, ), processes=processes, _orig_pool=_orig_pool, ) )
def _randomintersection( self, other, iterations, genome_fn, intersect_kwargs=None, _orig_pool=None, shuffle_kwargs=None, processes=1, ): """ Re-implementation of BedTool.randomintersection using the new `random_op` method """ if shuffle_kwargs is None: shuffle_kwargs = {} if intersect_kwargs is None: intersect_kwargs = dict(u=True) if not genome_fn: raise ValueError("Need a genome filename in order to perform randomization") return list( self.parallel_apply( iterations=iterations, func=pybedtools.stats.random_intersection, func_args=(self, other), func_kwargs=dict( genome_fn=genome_fn, shuffle_kwargs=shuffle_kwargs, intersect_kwargs=intersect_kwargs, ), processes=processes, _orig_pool=_orig_pool, ) )
[docs] def randomintersection_bp( self, other, iterations, genome_fn, intersect_kwargs=None, shuffle_kwargs=None, processes=1, _orig_pool=None, ): """ Like randomintersection, but return the bp overlap instead of the number of intersecting intervals. """ if shuffle_kwargs is None: shuffle_kwargs = {} if intersect_kwargs is None: intersect_kwargs = {} if not genome_fn: raise ValueError("Need a genome filename in order to perform randomization") return list( self.parallel_apply( iterations=iterations, func=pybedtools.stats.random_intersection_bp, func_args=(self, other), func_kwargs=dict( genome_fn=genome_fn, shuffle_kwargs=shuffle_kwargs, intersect_kwargs=intersect_kwargs, ), processes=processes, _orig_pool=_orig_pool, ) )
[docs] def randomintersection( self, other, iterations, intersect_kwargs=None, shuffle_kwargs=None, debug=False, report_iterations=False, processes=None, _orig_processes=None, ): """ Perform `iterations` shufflings, each time intersecting with `other`. Returns a generator of integers where each integer is the number of intersections of a shuffled file with *other*. This distribution can be used in downstream analysis for things like empirical p-values. *intersect_kwargs* and *shuffle_kwargs* are passed to self.intersect() and self.shuffle() respectively. By default for intersect, u=True is specified -- but s=True might be a useful option for strand-specific work. Useful kwargs for *shuffle_kwargs* are chrom, excl, or incl. If you use the "seed" kwarg, that seed will be used *each* time shuffleBed is called -- so all your randomization results will be identical for each iteration. To get around this and to allow for tests, debug=True will set the seed to the iteration number. You may also break up the intersections across multiple processes with *processes* > 1. Example usage: >>> chromsizes = {'chr1':(0, 1000)} >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> a = a.set_chromsizes(chromsizes) >>> b = pybedtools.example_bedtool('b.bed') >>> results = a.randomintersection(b, 10, debug=True) >>> print(list(results)) [1, 0, 1, 2, 4, 2, 2, 1, 2, 4] """ if processes is not None: p = multiprocessing.Pool(processes) iterations_each = [iterations // processes] * processes iterations_each[-1] += iterations % processes results = [ p.apply_async( _call_randomintersect, (self, other, it), dict( intersect_kwargs=intersect_kwargs, shuffle_kwargs=shuffle_kwargs, debug=debug, report_iterations=report_iterations, _orig_processes=processes, ), ) for it in iterations_each ] for r in results: for value in r.get(): yield value raise StopIteration if shuffle_kwargs is None: shuffle_kwargs = {} if intersect_kwargs is None: intersect_kwargs = {"u": True} if "u" not in intersect_kwargs: intersect_kwargs["u"] = True resort = intersect_kwargs.get("sorted", False) for i in range(iterations): if debug: shuffle_kwargs["seed"] = i if report_iterations: if _orig_processes > 1: msg = "\rapprox (total across %s processes): %s" % ( _orig_processes, i * _orig_processes, ) else: msg = "\r%s" % i sys.stderr.write(msg) sys.stderr.flush() # Re-sort if sorted=True in kwargs if resort: tmp0 = self.shuffle(**shuffle_kwargs) tmp = tmp0.sort() else: tmp = self.shuffle(**shuffle_kwargs) tmp2 = tmp.intersect(other, stream=True, **intersect_kwargs) yield len(tmp2) # Close the open stdouts from subprocess.Popen calls. Note: doing # this in self.__del__ doesn't fix the open file limit bug; it # needs to be done here. # if resort: # tmp0.fn.close() # tmp.fn.close() tmp2.fn.close() del tmp del tmp2
[docs] @_log_to_history def cat(self, *others, **kwargs): """ Concatenate interval files together. Concatenates two BedTool objects (or an object and a file) and does an optional post-merge of the features. *postmerge=True* by default; use *postmerge=False* if you want to keep features separate. *force_truncate=False* by default; *force_truncate=True* to truncate all files to chrom, start, stop. When *force_truncate=False* and *postmerge=False*, the output will contain the smallest number of fields observed across all inputs. This maintains compatibility with BEDTools programs, which assume constant number of fields in all lines of a file. Other kwargs are sent to :meth:`BedTool.merge` (and assuming that *postmerge=True*). Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> b = pybedtools.example_bedtool('b.bed') >>> print( #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 1 500 chr1 800 950 <BLANKLINE> >>> print(*[b,b], ... postmerge=False)) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 1 100 feature1 0 + chr1 100 200 feature2 0 + chr1 150 500 feature3 0 - chr1 900 950 feature4 0 + chr1 155 200 feature5 0 - chr1 800 901 feature6 0 + chr1 155 200 feature5 0 - chr1 800 901 feature6 0 + <BLANKLINE> """ assert len(others) > 0, "You must specify at least one other bedfile!" other_beds = [] for other in others: if isinstance(other, six.string_types): other = BedTool(other) else: assert isinstance( other, BedTool ), "Either filename or another BedTool instance required" other_beds.append(other) # postmerge and force_trucate don't get passed on to merge postmerge = kwargs.pop("postmerge", True) force_truncate = kwargs.pop("force_truncate", False) stream_merge = kwargs.get("stream", False) if stream_merge and postmerge: raise ValueError( "The post-merge step in the `cat()` method " "perfoms a sort, which uses stream=True. Using " "stream=True for the merge as well will result in a " "deadlock!" ) # if filetypes and field counts are the same, don't truncate if not force_truncate: try: a_type = self.file_type files = [self] + other_beds filetypes = set( [self.file_type] + [i.file_type for i in other_beds] ).difference(["empty"]) field_nums = ( set([self.field_count()] + [i.field_count() for i in other_beds]) .difference([None]) .difference([0]) ) same_field_num = len(field_nums) == 1 same_type = len(set(filetypes)) == 1 except ValueError: raise ValueError( "Can't check filetype or field count -- " "is one of the files you're merging a 'streaming' " "BedTool? If so, use .saveas() to save to file first" ) tmp = self._tmp() if not force_truncate and same_type and same_field_num: with open(tmp, "w") as TMP: for f in self: TMP.write(str(f)) for other in other_beds: for f in other: TMP.write(str(f)) # Types match, so we can use the min number of fields observed across # all inputs elif not force_truncate and same_type: minfields = min(field_nums) with open(tmp, "w") as TMP: for f in self: TMP.write("\t".join(f.fields[:minfields]) + "\n") for other in other_beds: for f in other: TMP.write("\t".join(f.fields[:minfields]) + "\n") # Otherwise, use the zero-based chrom/start/stop to create a BED3, # which will work when catting a GFF and a BED together. else: with open(tmp, "w") as TMP: for f in self: TMP.write("%s\t%i\t%i\n" % (f.chrom, f.start, f.end)) for other in other_beds: for f in other: TMP.write("%s\t%i\t%i\n" % (f.chrom, f.start, f.end)) c = BedTool(tmp) if postmerge: d = c.sort(stream=True).merge(**kwargs) # Explicitly delete -- needed when using multiprocessing os.unlink(tmp) return d else: return c
[docs] @_log_to_history def saveas(self, fn=None, trackline=None, compressed=None): """ Make a copy of the BedTool. Optionally adds `trackline` to the beginning of the file. Optionally compresses output using gzip. if the filename extension is .gz, or compressed=True, the output is compressed using gzip Returns a new BedTool for the newly saved file. A newline is automatically added to the trackline if it does not already have one. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> b = a.saveas('other.bed') >>> b.fn 'other.bed' >>> print(b == a) True >>> b = a.saveas('other.bed', trackline="name='test run' color=0,55,0") >>> open(b.fn).readline() "name='test run' color=0,55,0\\n" >>> if os.path.exists('other.bed'): ... os.unlink('other.bed') """ if fn is None: fn = self._tmp() # Default to compressed if extension is .gz if compressed is None: __, extension = os.path.splitext(fn) if extension == ".gz": compressed = True else: compressed = False in_compressed = isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types) and isGZIP(self.fn) fn = self._collapse( self, fn=fn, trackline=trackline, in_compressed=in_compressed, out_compressed=compressed, ) return BedTool(fn)
[docs] @_log_to_history def moveto(self, fn=None): """ Move to a new filename (can be much quicker than BedTool.saveas()) Move BED file to new filename, `fn`. Returns a new BedTool for the new file. Example usage: >>> # make a copy so we don't mess up the example file >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed').saveas() >>> a_contents = str(a) >>> b = a.moveto('other.bed') >>> b.fn 'other.bed' >>> b == a_contents True """ if not isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types): fn = self._collapse(self, fn=fn) else: shutil.move(self.fn, fn) return BedTool(fn)
[docs] @_log_to_history def random_subset(self, n=None, f=None, seed=None): """ Return a BedTool containing a random subset. NOTE: using `n` will be slower and use more memory than using `f`. Parameters ---------- n : int Number of features to return. Only one of `n` or `f` can be provided. f : float, 0 <= f <= 1 Fraction of features to return. Cannot be provided with `n`. seed : float or int Set random.seed Example ------- >>> seed = 0 # only for test, otherwise use None `n` will always give the same number of returned features, but will be slower since it is creating an index and then shuffling it. >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') >>> b = a.random_subset(n=2) >>> len(b) 2 Using a fraction `f` will be faster but depending on seed will result in slightly different total numbers. >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('x.bam') >>> len(a) 45593 >>> b = a.random_subset(f=0.4, seed=seed) >>> len(b) 18316 Check that we have approximately the right fraction >>> print('{0:.2f}'.format(len(b) / len(a))) 0.40 """ if ((n is None) and (f is None)) or ((n is not None) and (f is not None)): raise ValueError("Exactly one of `n` or `f` must be provided") tmpfn = self._tmp() if seed is not None: random.seed(seed) if n: idxs = list(range(len(self))) random.shuffle(idxs) idxs = idxs[:n] with open(tmpfn, "w") as tmp: for i, feature in enumerate(self): if i in idxs: tmp.write(str(feature)) elif f: with open(tmpfn, "w") as tmp: for i in self: if random.random() <= f: tmp.write(str(i)) return BedTool(tmpfn)
[docs] def total_coverage(self): """ Return the total number of bases covered by this interval file. Does a self.merge() first to remove potentially multiple-counting bases. Example usage: >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed') This does a merge() first, so this is what the total coverage is counting: >>> print(a.merge()) #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE chr1 1 500 chr1 900 950 <BLANKLINE> >>> print(a.total_coverage()) 549 """ b = self.merge() total_bp = 0 for feature in b.features(): total_bp += len(feature) return total_bp
[docs] @_log_to_history def with_attrs(self, **kwargs): """ Helper method for adding attributes in the middle of a pipeline. Given arbitrary keyword arguments, turns the keys and values into attributes. Useful for labeling BedTools at creation time. Example usage: >>> # add a "label" attribute to each BedTool >>> a = pybedtools.example_bedtool('a.bed')\ .with_attrs(label='transcription factor 1') >>> b = pybedtools.example_bedtool('b.bed')\ .with_attrs(label='transcription factor 2') >>> for i in [a, b]: ... print('{0} features for {1}'.format(i.count(), i.label)) 4 features for transcription factor 1 2 features for transcription factor 2 """ for key, value in list(kwargs.items()): setattr(self, key, value) return self
[docs] def as_intervalfile(self): """ Returns an IntervalFile of this BedTool for low-level interface. """ if not isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types): fn = self._collapse(self.fn) else: fn = self.fn return IntervalFile(fn)
[docs] def liftover(self, chainfile, unmapped=None, liftover_args=""): """ Returns a new BedTool of the liftedOver features, saving the unmapped ones as `unmapped`. If `unmapped` is None, then discards the unmapped features. `liftover_args` is a string of additional args that is passed, verbatim, to liftOver. Needs `liftOver` from UCSC to be on the path and a `chainfile` downloaded from UCSC. """ result = BedTool._tmp() if unmapped is None: unmapped = BedTool._tmp() cmds = ["liftOver", liftover_args, self.fn, chainfile, result, unmapped] os.system(" ".join(cmds)) return BedTool(result)
[docs] def absolute_distance(self, other, closest_kwargs=None, use_midpoints=False): """ Returns an iterator of the *absolute* distances between features in self and other. If `use_midpoints` is True, then only use the midpoints of features (which will return values where features are overlapping). Otherwise, when features overlap the value will always be zero. `closest_kwargs` are passed to self.closest(); either `d` or 'D` are required in order to get back distance values (`d=True` is default) """ from .featurefuncs import midpoint if closest_kwargs is None: closest_kwargs = {"d": True} if "D" not in closest_kwargs: closest_kwargs.update(dict(d=True)) if use_midpoints: mid_self = self.each(midpoint).saveas() mid_other = other.each(midpoint).saveas() c = mid_self.closest(mid_other, stream=True, **closest_kwargs) else: c = self.closest(other, stream=True, **closest_kwargs) for i in c: yield int(i[-1])
[docs] def relative_distance(self, other, genome=None, g=None): """ Returns an iterator of relative distances between features in self and other. First computes the midpoints of self and other, then returns distances of each feature in `other` relative to the distance between `self` features. Requires either `genome` (dictionary of chromsizes or assembly name) or `g` (filename of chromsizes file). """ if (genome is None) and (g is None): raise ValueError("Need either `genome` or `g` arg for relative distance") if genome and g: raise ValueError("Please specify only one of `genome` or `g`") if genome: g_dict = dict(genome=genome) if g: g_dict = dict(g=g) from .featurefuncs import midpoint # This gets the space between features in self. c = self.each(midpoint).complement(**g_dict) mid_other = other.each(midpoint).saveas() hits = c.intersect(other, wao=True, stream=True) for i in hits: yield float(i[-1]) / len(i)
[docs] def colormap_normalize(self, vmin=None, vmax=None, percentile=False, log=False): """ Returns a normalization instance for use by featurefuncs.add_color(). Parameters ---------- vmin, vmax : float, int, or None `vmin` and `vmax` set the colormap bounds; if None then these will be determined from the scores in the BED file. log : bool If True, put the scores on a log scale; of course be careful if you have negative scores percentile : bool If True, interpret vmin and vmax as a percentile in the range [0,100] rather than absolute values. """ field_count = self.field_count() if (self.file_type != "bed") or (field_count < 5): raise ValueError("colorizing only works for BED files with score " "fields") import matplotlib import numpy as np if log: norm = matplotlib.colors.LogNorm() else: norm = matplotlib.colors.Normalize() scores = np.array([i.score for i in self], dtype=float) scores = scores[np.isfinite(scores)] norm.autoscale(scores) if vmin is not None: if percentile: vmin = np.percentile(scores, vmin) norm.vmin = vmin if vmax is not None: if percentile: vmax = np.percentile(scores, vmax) norm.vmax = vmax return norm
[docs] def at(self, inds): """ Returns a new BedTool with only intervals at lines `inds` """ length = len(inds) def _gen(): k = 0 for i, feature in enumerate(self): if i == inds[k]: yield feature k += 1 if k == length: break return BedTool(_gen()).saveas()
def to_dataframe(self, disable_auto_names=False, *args, **kwargs): """ Create a pandas.DataFrame, passing args and kwargs to pandas.read_csv The separator kwarg `sep` is given a tab `\\t` as value by default. Parameters ---------- disable_auto_names : bool By default, the created dataframe fills in column names automatically according to the detected filetype (e.g., "chrom", "start", "end" for a BED3 file). Set this argument to True to disable this behavior. """ # Complain if BAM or if not a file if self._isbam: raise ValueError("BAM not supported for converting to DataFrame") if not isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types): raise ValueError("use .saveas() to make sure self.fn is a file") try: import pandas except ImportError: raise ImportError("pandas must be installed to convert to pandas.DataFrame") # Otherwise we're good: names = kwargs.get("names", None) if names is None and not disable_auto_names: try: _names = settings._column_names[self.file_type][: self.field_count()] if len(_names) < self.field_count(): warn( "Default names for filetype %s are:\n%s\nbut file has " "%s fields; you can supply custom names with the " "`names` kwarg" % (self.file_type, _names, self.field_count()) ) _names = None except KeyError: _names = None kwargs["names"] = _names if os.path.isfile(self.fn) and os.path.getsize(self.fn) > 0: return pandas.read_csv(self.fn, *args, sep="\t", **kwargs) else: return pandas.DataFrame() def tail(self, lines=10, as_string=False): """ Like `head`, but prints last 10 lines of the file by default. To avoid consuming iterables, this only works with file-based, non-BAM BedTool objects. Use `as_string=True` to return a string. """ if self._isbam: raise ValueError("tail() not yet implemented for BAM files") if not isinstance(self.fn, six.string_types): raise ValueError( "tail() not implemented for non-file-based " "BedTool objects. Please use saveas() first." ) bufsize = 8192 offset = bufsize f = open(self.fn, "rb") # whence=2 arg means relative to end (i.e., go to the end), 2) file_size = f.tell() data = [] while True: if file_size < bufsize: offset = file_size, 2) chunk = data.extend(chunk.splitlines(True)) if len(data) >= lines or offset == file_size: break offset += bufsize result = "".join([i.decode() for i in data[-lines:]]) if as_string: return result else: print(result)
class BAM(object): def __init__(self, stream): """ Wraps pysam.Samfile so that it yields pybedtools.Interval objects when iterated over. The pysam.Samfile can be accessed via the .pysam_bamfile attribute. """ = stream if not isinstance(, six.string_types): raise ValueError("Only files are supported, not streams") self.pysam_bamfile = pysam.Samfile( def _aligned_segment_to_interval(self, r): if r.rname >= 0: rname = self.pysam_bamfile.getrname(r.rname) else: rname = "*" if r.rnext >= 0: if r.rnext == r.rname: rnext = "=" else: rnext = self.pysam_bamfile.getrname(r.rnext) else: rnext = "*" # SAM spec says if unavailable should be set to 0. Pysam sets to -1. if r.pnext <= 0: pnext = "0" else: # +1 here because cbedtools.pyx expects SAM -- which is 1-based -- # but pysam uses 0-based. pnext = str(r.pnext + 1) if r.cigarstring: cigarstring = r.cigarstring else: cigarstring = "*" # Rudimentary support. # TODO: remove when refactoring to new BAM iterating tags = [] for k, v in r.tags: if isinstance(v, int): t = "i" elif isinstance(v, float): t = "f" else: t = "Z" tags.append("{0}:{1}:{2}".format(k, t, v)) tags = "\t".join(tags) if r.seq: seq = r.seq else: seq = "*" if r.qual: qual = r.qual else: qual = "*" fields = [ r.qname, str(r.flag), rname, # +1 here because cbedtools.pyx expects SAM -- which is 1-based -- # but pysam uses 0-based. str(r.pos + 1), str(r.mapq), cigarstring, rnext, pnext, str(r.tlen), seq, qual, ] if tags: fields.append(tags) if None in fields: raise ValueError("Found 'None' in fields: %s" % fields) return create_interval_from_list(fields) def __iter__(self): return self # TODO: this is PAINFUL but it ensures that existing tests work. Once all # tests work, the new behavior will be to yield pysam AlignedSegment # objects directly. def __next__(self): return self._aligned_segment_to_interval(next(self.pysam_bamfile)) def next(self): return self.__next__() class History(list): def __init__(self): """ Represents one or many HistorySteps. Mostly used for nicely formatting a series of HistorySteps. """ list.__init__(self) class HistoryStep(object): def __init__(self, method, args, kwargs, bedtool_instance, parent_tag, result_tag): """ Class to represent one step in the history. Mostly used for its __repr__ method, to try and exactly replicate code that can be pasted to re-do history steps """ try: self.method = method._name except AttributeError: if six.PY3: self.method = method.__name__ else: self.method = method.func_name self.args = args self.kwargs = kwargs self.fn = bedtool_instance.fn tag = "".join(random.choice(string.ascii_lowercase) for _ in range(8)) self.parent_tag = parent_tag self.result_tag = result_tag def _clean_arg(self, arg): """ Wrap strings in quotes and convert bedtool instances to filenames. """ if isinstance(arg, pybedtools.BedTool): arg = arg.fn if isinstance(arg, six.string_types): arg = '"%s"' % arg return arg def __repr__(self): # Still not sure whether to use pybedtools.bedtool() or bedtool() s = "" s += "<HistoryStep> " if os.path.exists(self.fn): s += 'BedTool("%(fn)s").%(method)s(%%s%%s)' % self.__dict__ else: s += 'BedTool("MISSING FILE: %(fn)s")' % self.__dict__ s += ".%(method)s(%%s%%s)" % self.__dict__ # Format args and kwargs args_string = ",".join(map(self._clean_arg, self.args)) kwargs_string = ",".join( ["%s=%s" % (i[0], self._clean_arg(i[1])) for i in list(self.kwargs.items())] ) # stick a comma on the end if there's something here if len(args_string) > 0: args_string += ", " s = s % (args_string, kwargs_string) s += ", parent tag: %s" % self.parent_tag s += ", result tag: %s" % self.result_tag return s
[docs]def example_bedtool(fn): """ Return a bedtool using a bed file from the pybedtools examples directory. Use :func:`list_example_files` to see a list of files that are included. """ fn = os.path.join(filenames.data_dir(), fn) if not os.path.exists(fn): msg = "%s does not exist" % fn if six.PY2: raise ValueError(msg) raise FileNotFoundError(msg) return BedTool(fn)
if __name__ == "__main__": import doctest doctest.testmod(optionflags=doctest.ELLIPSIS | doctest.NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE)